The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck and plays a big part in the human body's metabolism, growth, and development.
Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder in which the thyroid gland doesn't produce enough thyroid hormone that the body needs. An underactive thyroid is the most common thyroid disease and can affect anyone at any age.
Causes of congenital hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism in newborns is usually due to a non-functioning, underdeveloped or missing thyroid gland. Less common causes include:
Medications taken by the mother during pregnancy
Iodine deficiency in the mother's diet during pregnancy
A thyroid blocking antibody passed from mother to baby
Acquired hypothyroidism is hypothyroidism that develops later in childhood and adolescence. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism in children and occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks cells in the thyroid gland.
Children who are at risk of developing acquired hypothyroidism
While hypothyroidism can develop in anyone, certain children are at greater risk.
Risk factors for children include:
Autoimmune diseases, like Type 1 diabetes
Injury to the thyroid gland
A family history of autoimmune thyroid disease
Inadequate iodine intake
Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism in children
Hypothyroidism symptoms in children can differ from those in adults. Symptoms can also vary from child to child.
Newborns (neonatal hypothyroidism):
These symptoms usually occur within the first few weeks or months after birth. Many times the signs are subtle and easily overlooked by parents and doctors. Hypothyroidism screening right after birth is critical because starting treatment right away can prevent these:
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
Decreased crying or a weak cry
Umbilical hernia (navel protrudes out)
More prominent soft spot on the head
Slow bone growth
Childhood (juvenile hypothyroidism)
Slow growth, which can cause shorter limbs
Delayed tooth development
Dry, brittle hair
Lack of school performance
Adolescents (adolescent hypothyroidism)
Slow reaction time
Heavy or irregular periods in girls
Enlarged thyroid gland
(Many of the same symptoms can occur in childhood and adolescents)
Treatment for children with hypothyroidism
If your child is showing any signs of hypothyroidism or you are concerned about their health, seeing your pediatrician is an important first step in their treatment.
The typical treatment for babies, children, and teens with hypothyroidism is a synthetic thyroid hormone called levothyroxine (Synthroid). Dosage is determined by your doctor based on the age and weight of your child.
Since your child's dosage will change as they grow, it's critical to have them seen and retested frequently to ensure they are getting the right amount of medication.
Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:
developmental delays, including sexual maturity
fertility issues in adulthood
low body temperature
Hypothyroidism can be a lifelong condition for your child, but it can be managed. Many children with hypothyroidism lead a healthy, normal life as long as they are consistent with their medicine.
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